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Zika Virus Guidance

Signs and Symptoms of Zika Virus Infection

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Joint pain
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Malaise within two weeks of travel to affected regions, including countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Pacific islands and Cape Verde


The majority of cases are mild or asymptomatic. Symptoms are generally self-limited and resolve in less than a week.


Who Should Be Tested

  • All pregnant women who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika transmission
  • Testing should be offered regardless of whether the pregnant woman is symptomatic or asymptomatic
  • Routine testing of women who are not pregnant or men is generally not indicated

o   The CDC provides guidelines for caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure

o   Johns Hopkins Medicine Zika Virus Protocol for Pregnant Women


How to Obtain Testing

  • All testing for Zika virus is currently performed by the CDC and must be coordinated through state and local health departments.
  • Please contact your institution's health care epidemiology and infection control department for assistance and to coordinate communications within Johns Hopkins Medicine.
  • In Maryland, the guidance on testing can be found on the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) website.
  • In the District of Columbia and Florida, please contact your institution's health care epidemiology and infection control representative and the relevant public health authorities to arrange for testing.



  • Avoiding mosquito bites in areas with known Zika transmission is the best prevention .
  • Pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant should consider postponing travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission.
  • Consistent and correct use of condoms may help reduce sexual transmission of Zika virus, although this is not considered to be a primary means of viral transmission.


More information is available on the CDC and DHMH websites. We will provide additional updates as the situation evolves.

Watch PNAA in PBS NewsHour Fred De Sam Lazaro:  report on Labor trafficking and international nurse recruitment. Scammers take advantage of Filipino nurses lured by promise of employment in the U.S


TRAVEL ADVISORY: Measles Protection
17 March 2014

It has come to the attention of the California Department of Public Health that there has been an increasing number of imported measles cases.   Since it is now widespread in different parts of the world, everyone is encouraged to protect themselves from the measles disease.  Here are some helpful tips:


Get measles vaccine:


  • People who cannot show that they were vaccinated as children and who have never had measles should be vaccinated.
  • Infants 6–11 months of age should have 1 dose of measles vaccine if traveling internationally.
  • Children in the United States routinely receive measles vaccination at 12–15 months of age.
  • Infants vaccinated before age 12 months should be revaccinated on or after the first birthday with 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
  • Children 12 months of age or older should have 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
  • Adolescents and adults who have not had measles or have not been vaccinated should get 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
  • Two doses of MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine is nearly 100% effective at preventing measles.
  • The only measles vaccines available in the United States are the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccines. MMR has been used safely and effectively since the 1970s. A few people experience mild, temporary adverse reactions, such as joint pain, from the vaccine, but serious side effects are extremely rare. There is no link between MMR and autism.


Practice hygiene and cleanliness:


  • Wash your hands often.
  • If soap and water aren’t available, clean your hands with hand sanitizer (containing at least 60% alcohol).
  • Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
  • Try to avoid close contact, such as kissing, hugging, or sharing eating utensils or cups, with people who are sick.


If you feel sick and think you may have measles:


  • Talk to your doctor or nurse if you feel seriously ill, especially if you have a fever.
  • Tell him or her about your travel.
  • Avoid contact with other people while you are sick.




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